Shevat 13, 5762 /
Jan 26, 2002
(5765 / 2005 & 5768 /
These readings and commentary are divided for
two weeks for 2011 & 2014
Shevat 15, 5777 /
Shevat 13, 5780 /
Feb 8, 2020
Shevat 13, 5783 /
Feb 4, 2023
Then Jacob Summoned
SCRIPTURES should be read first
As we come to the end of the Book of
Genesis, where we have followed the Messianic line from Adam, we have prophecies
of the future Messianic Age.
The twelve sons of Jacob – the twelve
tribes of Israel – were chosen by God to be His messengers to the whole world –
the “Light of the World.” They would be given the Torah at Mt. Sinai, and be the
progenitors of Messiah. None of this was because of any inherent righteousness
or ability or greatness of theirs: it was so that God could show His
righteousness and strength through their weaknesses.
(V.1) JACOB (the name representing
him as natural father) called for his twelve sons and said, “assemble
yourselves, and I will tell you what will (yiqra) call to you in the end of days”
(literal translation). The immediate generation was to be told what their
calling would be for the Messianic Age (Last Days).
(V.2) ISRAEL (the name representing
him as spiritual father) said, “gather yourselves and listen”. All spiritual
descendents should gather to learn of these words to obey them.
REUBEN was the firstborn: with him
Jacob’s primary purpose in life should have been carried on. He inherited the
natural right to the “lifting of hands” of priesthood, and the authority of
kingship. But he was “impetuous like water”, making rash decisions, like
in the incident of Bilhah. So he lost his birthright to Joseph, he lost his
kingship to Judah, and he lost his priesthood to Levi.
We should carefully consider the end
of our actions, and our purpose before God; we should avoid making quick,
Messiah would come through Joseph and
Judah-David, not Reuben. Messiah’s priesthood, however, is not through Levi, but
goes back to that of the firstborn (Malchi-Tzedek), though not through Reuben.
This is why we read in Hebrews 6:20 that Yeshua is a priest forever after the
order of Melchizedek.
SIMEON and LEVI were comrades in
deed. They conspired against Shechem (v.34:25) and against Joseph (v.37:19).
Their kinship was based on violence (Rashbam). Jacob previously denied
knowledge of their plotting (v.34:13), and now, for his descendents, desired no
part in their conspiratorial ways. This may be applied to such matters as the
spies who slandered Israel (Num 13:4), and the uprising led by Levi’s descendent
Korach against Moses and Aaron (Num 16:1). (V.6) “At their whim they maimed
an ox” may refer to their attempt to unseat Joseph, who is likened to an ox
(Deut 33:17). (V.5) “Their weaponry is a stolen craft” – from Esau.
Jacob desired the annihilation of
their fierce rage and harsh wrath (this curse on their rage is actually a
blessing to the brothers). So he prophesied of their separation and dispersion
within Israel (v.7). Simeon’s cities were scattered throughout the south of
Judah’s territory (Joshua 19:1). Levi was not numbered among the tribes (Num
26:62), though he held the position of priest, and received no territory, but
forty-eight cities dispersed among the tribes.
Our anger and wrath does not fulfill
the purposes of God. We need to overcome such ways for our own good.
Wherefore, my beloved brethren,
let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath: for the wrath of
man worketh not the righteousness of God (James 1:19-20).
However, this in no way detracts from
the righteousness of God’s wrath: we cannot put God under our laws!
JUDAH is a lion cub – who will mature
into the lion king. In Messianic prophecy, his brothers will ascribe majesty to
him; they will prostrate themselves before him (v.8). “His hand will be at
his enemies’ nape” was fulfilled in David (2 Samuel 22:41) – “You have
given me the nape of my enemies”, and will see greater fulfillment in the
future when all of Yeshua’s enemies are put under his feet.
(V.10) “The scepter shall not
depart from Judah . . .” means that Judah will be the tribe providing
Israel’s sovereign ruler, from David all the way to Messiah Yeshua; it does not
mean that there would always be a Judean king. Judah has had preeminence in
leading Israel even in exile and other times when they had no king: Judah led
the Sanhedrin even under Roman domination.
The ancient sages, and even most
rabbis in modern rabbinic Judaism, see this as referring to the coming King
Messiah ben David. Modern rabbinic Judaism has rejected the already-come
suffering-servant Messiah ben Joseph. “To him will be the assemblage of the
nations” (see Isaiah 18:7 and Psalm 76:12), ultimately fulfilling Jacob’s
preface – “gather
yourselves and listen”
“He will tie his donkey to the
vine” indicates the future abundance of the land, where the vines would be
strong enough to restrain one’s animals. So Yeshua’s coming on a donkey
represented his proper place of kingship in a prosperous land.
“He will wash his garments in wine”
is seen by ancients as a Messianic prophecy concerning the blood of His enemies:
(Isaiah 63:1-6) –
Who is this who comes from Edom, with garments of glowing colors from Bozrah,
this One who is majestic in His apparel, marching in the greatness of His
strength? "It is I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save." Why is Your
apparel red, and Your garments like the one who treads in the wine press? "I
have trodden the wine trough alone, and from the peoples there was no man with
Me. I also trod them in My anger, and trampled them in My wrath; and their
lifeblood is sprinkled on My garments, and I stained all My raiment. "For the
day of vengeance was in My heart, and My year of redemption has come. "And I
looked, and there was no one to help, and I was astonished and there was no one
to uphold; so My own arm brought salvation to Me; and My wrath upheld Me. "And I
trod down the peoples in My anger, and made them drunk in My wrath, and I poured
out their lifeblood on the earth."
(V.10) “Nor a scholar . . . until
Shiloh arrives”: Judahites (Jews) are the ones responsible for preserving
God’s instruction that we have today. And our only “rabbi” (Matthew 23:8) –
Yeshua our ultimate teacher, is a Judahite. Shiloh means a gift to him,
which the Midrash explains is a reference to King Messiah, to whom all nations
will bring gifts.
ZEBULUN and ISSACHAR, the next to be
blessed, are not the next of Jacob’s sons in age, but complete the list of sons
by Leah. The remaining sons are blessed in birth order.
“DAN will be a serpent on the highway
(v.17).” Dan represents the Messianic judge: “For we must all appear before
the judgment seat of Christ” (2 Corinthians 5:10). We, in this life,
are to judge righteously: the quotations that we commonly hear against “judging”
are really against “condemning” others (there being several Biblical words that
are commonly translated “judge” in various versions).
GAD and ASHER are the two sons by
Zilpah, Leah’s handmaid.
Dan (mentioned previously) and
NAPHTALI are the two sons by Bilhah, Rachel’s handmaid.
JOSEPH is the only son not mentioned
first by name, but as “a charming son” (v.22), which is repeated. He is
treated as the firstborn insofar as he was given a double portion of inheritance
– through Ephraim and Manassah. (He was the firstborn of Jacobs intended only
wife Rachel.) He displayed an upright walk, even in great tribulation; and
through him would come the suffering Messiah, to bring righteousness to Israel.
["A fruitful bough"- NASB / "A
charming son is Joseph, a charming son to the eye; each of the girls climbed
heights to gaze" - The Chumash - The Stone Edition.]
BENJAMIN is the second son of the
beloved Rachel, who died giving birth to him.
Year by Leah - Zilpah
; Rachel - Bilhah
6 Issachar Asher
(V.28) Israel “blessed each
according to his appropriate blessing.” They were blessed according to their
respective spiritual attainment, their ancestors fulfilled their prophesied
futures, and their Messianic positions are for us to see.
In the Haftarah, we see an allusion
to these blessings:
“When you pass
through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they will not
overflow you. When you walk through the fire, you will not be scorched, nor will
the flame burn you” – Isaiah 43:2.
In Psalm 40, Joseph’s life is
pictured; ultimately, it is Yeshua’s life that is pictured. “He brought me up
out of the pit of destruction” (v.2). “I have not hidden Thy
righteousness within my heart; I have spoken of Thy faithfulness and Thy
In today’s portion, we see the
burials of both Jacob and Joseph. In the Apostolic portion, we see the burial of
Yeshua. Then, as Jacob said, “Gather together and hear, O sons of Jacob; and
listen to Israel your father”, so after Yeshua was raised, he said to Peter,
Our congregation is named “Followers
of the Messiah”, and we are to gather to learn Torah, and we are to follow
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who chose us from among all peoples by
giving us Your Torah.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the
1 Then Jacob called together all his sons and said,
"Gather around me, and I will tell you what is going to happen to you in the
days to come. 2 "Come and listen, O sons of Jacob; listen to Israel,
your father. 3 "REUBEN, you are my oldest son, the child of my
vigorous youth. You are first on the list in rank and honor. 4 But
you are as unruly as the waves of the sea, and you will be first no longer. For
you slept with one of my wives; you dishonored me in my own bed. 5
"SIMEON and LEVI are two of a kind-- men of violence. 6 O my soul,
stay away from them. May I never be a party to their wicked plans. For in their
anger they murdered men, and they crippled oxen just for sport. 7
Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; cursed be their wrath, for it is cruel.
Therefore, I will scatter their descendants throughout the nation of Israel.
Reader 2* Amen.
8 "JUDAH, your brothers will praise you. You will defeat your
enemies. All your relatives will bow before you. 9 Judah is a young
lion that has finished eating its prey. Like a lion he crouches and lies down;
like a lioness-- who will dare to rouse him? 10 The scepter will not
depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from his descendants, until the coming
of the one to whom it belongs, the one whom all nations will obey. 11
He ties his foal to a grapevine, the colt of his donkey to a choice vine. He
washes his clothes in wine because his harvest is so plentiful. 12
His eyes are darker than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk. 13
"ZEBULUN will settle on the shores of the sea and will be a harbor for ships;
his borders will extend to Sidon. 14 "ISSACHAR is a strong beast of
burden, resting among the sheepfolds. 15 When he sees how good the
countryside is, how pleasant the land, he will bend his shoulder to the task and
submit to forced labor. 16 "DAN will govern his people like any other
tribe in Israel. 17 He will be a snake beside the road, a poisonous
viper along the path, that bites the horse's heels so the rider is thrown off.
18 I trust in you for salvation, O Yahweh!
Reader 3* Amen.
19 "GAD will be plundered by marauding bands, but he will turn
and plunder them. 20 "ASHER will produce rich foods, food fit for
kings. 21 "NAPHTALI is a deer let loose, producing magnificent fawns.
22 "A fruitful bough is JOSEPH, a fruitful bough beside a fountain.
His branches reach over the wall. 23 He has been attacked by archers,
who shot at him and harassed him. 24 But his bow remained strong, and
his arms were strengthened by the Mighty One of Jacob, the Shepherd, the Rock of
Israel. 25 May the God of your ancestors help you; may the Almighty
bless you with the blessings of the heavens above, blessings of the earth
beneath, and blessings of the breasts and womb. 26 May the blessings
of your ancestors be greater than the blessings of the eternal mountains,
reaching to the utmost bounds of the everlasting hills. These blessings will
fall on the head of Joseph, who is a prince among his brothers. 27
"BENJAMIN is a wolf that prowls. He devours his enemies in the morning, and in
the evening he divides the plunder."
Reader 4* Amen.
28 These are the twelve tribes of Israel, and these are the
blessings with which Jacob blessed his twelve sons. Each received a blessing
that was appropriate to him. 29 Then Jacob told them, "Soon I will
die. Bury me with my father and grandfather in the cave in Ephron's field.
30 This is the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in Canaan, which
Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite for a permanent burial place. 31
There Abraham and his wife Sarah are buried. There Isaac and his wife, Rebekah,
are buried. And there I buried Leah. 32 It is the cave that my
grandfather Abraham bought from the Hittites." 33 Then when Jacob had
finished this charge to his sons, he lay back in the bed, breathed his last, and
Reader 5* Amen.
50:1 Joseph threw himself on his father and wept over him and
kissed him. 2 Then Joseph told his morticians to embalm the body.
3 The embalming process took forty days, and there was a period of
national mourning for seventy days. 4 When the period of mourning was
over, Joseph approached Pharaoh's advisers and asked them to speak to Pharaoh on
his behalf. 5 He told them, "Tell Pharaoh that my father made me
swear an oath. He said to me, 'I am about to die; take my body back to the land
of Canaan, and bury me in our family's burial cave.' Now I need to go and bury
my father. After his burial is complete, I will return without delay." 6
Pharaoh agreed to Joseph's request. "Go and bury your father, as you promised,"
he said. 7 So Joseph went, with a great number of Pharaoh's
counselors and advisers-- all the senior officers of Egypt. 8 Joseph
also took his brothers and the entire household of Jacob. But they left their
little children and flocks and herds in the land of Goshen.
Reader 6* Amen.
9 So a great number of chariots, cavalry, and people
accompanied Joseph. 10 When they arrived at the threshing floor of
Atad, near the Jordan River, they held a very great and solemn funeral, with a
seven-day period of mourning for Joseph's father. 11 The local
residents, the Canaanites, renamed the place Abel-mizraim, for they said, "This
is a place of very deep mourning for these Egyptians." 12 So Jacob's
sons did as he had commanded them. 13 They carried his body to the
land of Canaan and buried it there in the cave of Machpelah. This is the cave
that Abraham had bought for a permanent burial place in the field of Ephron the
Hittite, near Mamre. 14 Then Joseph returned to Egypt with his
brothers and all who had accompanied him to his father's funeral. 15
But now that their father was dead, Joseph's brothers became afraid. "Now Joseph
will pay us back for all the evil we did to him," they said. 16 So
they sent this message to Joseph: "Before your father died, he instructed us
17 to say to you: 'Forgive your brothers for the great evil they did
to you.' So we, the servants of the God of your father, beg you to forgive us."
When Joseph received the message, he broke down and wept.
Reader 7* Amen.
18 Then his brothers came and bowed low before him. "We are
your slaves," they said. 19 But Joseph told them, "Don't be afraid of
me. Am I God, to judge and punish you? 20 As far as I am concerned,
God turned into good what you meant for evil. He brought me to the high position
I have today so I could save the lives of many people. 21 No, don't
be afraid. Indeed, I myself will take care of you and your families." And he
spoke very kindly to them, reassuring them. 22 So Joseph and his
brothers and their families continued to live in Egypt. Joseph was 110 years old
when he died. 23 He lived to see three generations of descendants of
his son Ephraim and the children of Manasseh's son Makir, who were treated as if
they were his own. 24 "Soon I will die," Joseph told his brothers,
"but God will surely come for you, to lead you out of this land of Egypt. He
will bring you back to the land he vowed to give to the descendants of Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob." 25 Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear an
oath, and he said, "When God comes to lead us back to Canaan, you must take my
body back with you." 26 So Joseph died
at the age of 110. They embalmed him, and his body was placed in a coffin in
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who in giving us Yeshua, the Living
Torah, has planted everlasting life in our midst.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets, delighting
in their words which were spoken truthfully.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, Who chose the
Torah, Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and the prophets of truth and
1 But now, thus says Yahweh, your Creator, O Jacob, and
He who formed you, O Israel, "Do not fear, for I have redeemed you; I have
called you by name; you are Mine! 2 "When you pass through the
waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they will not overflow you.
When you walk through the fire, you will not be scorched, nor will the flame
burn you. 3 "For I am Yahweh your God, the Holy One of Israel, your
Savior; I have given Egypt as your ransom, Cush and Seba in your place. 4
"Since you are precious in My sight, since you are honored and I love you, I
will give other men in your place and other peoples in exchange for your life.
5 "Do not fear, for I am with you; I will bring your offspring from
the east, and gather you from the west. 6 "I will say to the north,
'Give them up!' And to the south, 'Do not hold them back.' Bring My sons from
afar and My daughters from the ends of the earth, 7 Everyone who is
called by My name, and whom I have created for My glory, whom I have formed,
even whom I have made." 8 Bring out the people who are blind, even
though they have eyes, and the deaf, even though they have ears. 9
All the nations have gathered together so that the peoples may be assembled. Who
among them can declare this and proclaim to us the former things? Let them
present their witnesses that they may be justified, or let them hear and say,
"It is true."
Reader 9* Amen.
10 "You are My witnesses," declares Yahweh, "and My servant
whom I have chosen, so that you may know and believe Me and understand that I am
He. Before Me there was no God formed, and there will be none after Me. 11
"I, even I, am Yahweh, and there is no savior besides Me. 12 "It is I
who have declared and saved and proclaimed, and there was no strange god among
you; so you are My witnesses," declares Yahweh, "and I am God. 13
"Even from eternity I am He, and there is none who can deliver out of My hand; I
act and who can reverse it?" 14 Thus says Yahweh your Redeemer, the
Holy One of Israel, "For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and will bring them
all down as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, into the ships in which they rejoice.
15 "I am Yahweh, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King."
16 Thus says Yahweh, Who makes a way through the sea and a path
through the mighty waters, 17 Who brings forth the chariot and the
horse, the army and the mighty man (They will lie down together and not rise
again; they have been quenched and extinguished like a wick): 18 "Do
not call to mind the former things, or ponder things of the past. 19
"Behold, I will do something new, now it will spring forth; will you not be
aware of it? I will even make a roadway in the wilderness, rivers in the desert.
20 "The beasts of the field will glorify Me, the jackals and the
ostriches, because I have given waters in the wilderness and rivers in the
desert, to give drink to My chosen people. 21 "The people whom I
formed for Myself will declare My praise.
(To be sung.)
For the choir director. A Psalm of David.
1 I waited patiently for Yahweh;
and He inclined to me and heard my cry. 2 He brought me up out of the
pit of destruction, out of the miry clay, and He set my feet upon a rock making
my footsteps firm. 3 He put a new song in my mouth, a song of praise
to our God; many will see and fear And will trust in Yahweh. 4 How
blessed is the man who has made Yahweh his trust, and has not turned to the
proud, nor to those who lapse into falsehood. 5 Many, O Yahweh my
God, are the wonders which You have done, and Your thoughts toward us; there is
none to compare with You. If I would declare and speak of them, they would be
too numerous to count. 6 Sacrifice and meal offering You have not
desired; my ears You have opened; burnt offering and sin offering You have not
required. 7 Then I said, "Behold, I come; in the scroll of the book
it is written of me. 8 I delight to do Your will, O my God; Your Law
is within my heart." 9 I have proclaimed glad tidings of
righteousness in the great congregation; behold, I will not restrain my lips, O
Yahweh, You know. 10 I have not hidden Your righteousness within my
heart; I have spoken of Your faithfulness and Your salvation; I have not
concealed Your lovingkindness and Your truth from the great congregation.
11 You, O Yahweh, will not withhold Your compassion from me; Your
lovingkindness and Your truth will continually preserve me. 12 For
evils beyond number have surrounded me; my iniquities have overtaken me, so that
I am not able to see; they are more numerous than the hairs of my head, And my
heart has failed me. 13 Be pleased, O Yahweh, to deliver me; make
haste, O Yahweh, to help me. 14 Let those be ashamed and humiliated
together who seek my life to destroy it; let those be turned back and dishonored
who delight in my hurt. 15 Let those be appalled because of their
shame who say to me, "Aha, aha!" 16 Let all who seek You rejoice and
be glad in You; let those who love Your salvation say continually, "Yahweh be
magnified!" 17 Since I am afflicted and needy, let the Lord be
mindful of me. You are my help and my deliverer; do not delay, O my God.
John 19:39 – 20:9
Reader 10* Amen.
39 Nicodemus, who had first come to Him by night, also came,
bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds weight. 40
So they took the body of Yeshua and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices,
as is the burial custom of the Jews. 41 Now in the place where He was
crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had
yet been laid. 42 Therefore because of the Jewish day of preparation,
since the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.
20:1 Now on the first day of the
week Mary Magdalene came early to the tomb, while it was still dark, and saw the
stone already taken away from the tomb. 2 So she ran and came to
Simon Peter and to the other disciple whom Yeshua loved, and said to them, "They
have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have
laid Him." 3 So Peter and the other disciple went forth, and they
were going to the tomb. 4 The two were running together; and the
other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first; 5
and stooping and looking in, he saw the linen wrappings lying there; but he did
not go in. 6 And so Simon Peter also came, following him, and entered
the tomb; and he saw the linen wrappings lying there, 7 and the
face-cloth which had been on His head, not lying with the linen wrappings, but
rolled up in a place by itself. 8 So the other disciple who had first
come to the tomb then also entered, and he saw and believed. 9 For as
yet they did not understand the Scripture, that He must rise again from the
Reader 11* Amen.
12 Yeshua said to them, "Come and have breakfast." None of the
disciples ventured to question Him, "Who are You?" knowing that it was the Lord.
13 Yeshua came and took the bread and gave it to them, and the fish
likewise. 14 This is now the third time that Yeshua was manifested to
the disciples, after He was raised from the dead. 15 So when they had
finished breakfast, Yeshua said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love
Me more than these?" He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love You." He
said to him, "Tend My lambs." 16 He said to him again a second time,
"Simon, son of John, do you love Me?" He said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that
I love You." He said to him, "Shepherd My sheep." 17 He said to him
the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love Me?" Peter was grieved because
He said to him the third time, "Do you love Me?" And he said to Him, "Lord, You
know all things; You know that I love You." Yeshua said to him, "Tend My sheep.
18 "Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were younger, you used to
gird yourself and walk wherever you wished; but when you grow old, you will
stretch out your hands and someone else will gird you, and bring you where you
do not wish to go." 19 Now this He said, signifying by what kind of
death he would glorify God. And when He had spoken this, He said to him, "Follow
"Blessed are You, Yahweh
our God, King of the Universe,
Rock of Ages, righteous
throughout all generations.
You are the faithful God,
promising and then performing, speaking and then fulfilling,
for all Your words are true
Faithful are You, Yahweh
our God, and faithful are Your words,
for no word of Yours shall
You are a faithful and
merciful God and King.
Blessed are You, Yahweh our
God, Who are faithful in fulfilling all Your words."