Sivan 14, 5762 / May 25, 2002
Sivan 18, 5765 / June 25, 2005
Sivan 18, 5768 / June 21, 2008
Sivan 16, 5771 / June 18, 2011
Sivan 16, 5774 / June 14, 2014
Sivan 16, 5777 / June 10, 2017
Sivan 14, 5780 / June 6, 2020
Im-kesef Talveh /
When You Lend
SCRIPTURES (should be read first)
Today we will
look at some various Judgments, and then some Statutes and Ordinances, these
being the three Biblical divisions of the commandments.
A loan is a required form of charity, and one of the highest forms, because it
allows a borrower to gain financial stability without the embarrassment of
depending upon gifts. This is a judgment.
A lender was
not allowed to charge interest from God’s people. If a borrower did not repay
his debt in the stipulated time, the lender could obtain a court judgment
granting collateral; however, the lender could not keep items of collateral at
times when the borrower needed them: the lender could not keep the borrowers
bedding by night, nor his clothing by day.
is a poor man with you, one of your brothers, in any of your towns in your land
which Yahweh your God is giving you, you shall not harden your heart, nor close
your hand from your poor brother; but you shall freely open your hand to him,
and shall generously lend him sufficient for his need in whatever he lacks.
Beware that there is no base thought in your heart, saying, ‘The seventh year,
the year of remission, is near,' and your eye is hostile toward your poor
brother, and you give him nothing; then he may cry to Yahweh against you, and it
will be a sin in you. You shall generously give to him, and your heart shall not
be grieved when you give to him, because for this thing Yahweh your God will
bless you in all your work and in all your undertakings. For the poor will never
cease to be in the land; therefore I command you, saying, 'You shall freely open
your hand to your brother, to your needy and poor in your land’ ” –
“If you do
good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners
do the same. If you lend to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit
is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners in order to receive back the same
amount. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in
return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High;
for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men. Be merciful, just as your
Father is merciful”
– Luke 6:33-36.
shall not revile Elohim” may refer to cursing God or cursing judges – or
both. It is followed by “You shall not curse a leader”. While it is
forbidden to curse anyone, this commandment makes the sin greater if the object
is a judge or a leader of God’s people.
firstfruits (bikkurim) of crops (the seven species: wheat, barley, figs,
grapes, pomegranates, olives, and dates) – the first to become ripe, which are
normally the most treasured, are to be separated for God’s service. Also the
tithes (terumah) of wine and oil are for this service. The firstborn of
animals must be presented or redeemed. Presenting God’s portion is to be a
priority for us, not to be delayed for mundane reasons. Firstborn sons belong to
Yahweh, even though the Levites were taken for the sacred service; the firstborn
carry a greater responsibility for family spiritual service.
(V. 30) An
animal that was killed represents all forbidden foods. Eating forbidden foods
keeps us from being “holy” – separated to God. This is in the category of
Statutes, the reason being not obvious.
is forbidden for an individual to believe unverified gossip, and it is forbidden
for a judge to hear uncorroborated testimony. It is forbidden to follow a
majority to do evil, or to yield to a majority of witnesses to pervert judgment.
It is forbidden to show favoritism in judgment to a person because he is
destitute – or, as we see today, judging against some because they have “deep
23:10 we have some ordinances. These are the “ordinances of the church”!
shall sow your land for six years”; (v.12)
“Six days you are to do your work”.
First is the Sabbatical Year, and its relative, the weekly Sabbath. Ceasing from
labor, “resting”, does not imply catching up on sleep from a too-busy work week.
It means forsaking mundane activity in order to be refreshed by a day dedicated
to the worship of God, and this includes the commandment to assemble for
days work may be done; but the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, a
sacred assembly” – Leviticus 23:3
times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me.” Note that there are three
annual Feasts of Yahweh, with seven annual Holy Days / Yom Tovim,
observed as Sabbaths. They are:
[The “Day Prior” is the Preparation of the
Passover (Nisan 14).]
Feast of Unleavened Breads / Hag
haMatzot – a seven day Feast.
The first day is a Yom Tov
when the Passover is eaten (Nisan 15).
day is Waving Day, when we start counting the omer (Nisan 16).]
The seventh day is a Yom Tov
Feast of Weeks of the Firstfruits
/ Hag Shavuot haBikkurim:
It is a Yom Tov (Sivan 6).
Feast of Tabernacles / Hag Sukkot
– a seven day Feast.
(4) Day of
Trumpeting / Yom Teruah (two weeks prior) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 1).
(5) Day of
the Atonements / Yom HaKippurim (four days prior) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 10).
day of Feast of Tabernacles is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 15).
Day Assembly / Shemini Atzereh (following the Feast) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 22).
The Feasts are
related to the Temple, and therefore in Temple times men made a pilgrimage to
Jerusalem for each of the three.
Temple existed for most of the fourth millennium. The Sadducees existed for
about the last 200 years; they could not observe any of the above on different
days than the Pharisees.
are not to boil a young goat in the milk of its mother.” This Biblically
applies to all sheep and cattle (only rabinically is it extended to all kosher
meat and fowl). This statement is repeated three times in Torah (also Exodus
34:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21).
suggestions of the reason:
represents eating and milk represents reproduction – two things animals
instinctively do. Man is to differentiate between these two and subjugate them
to a higher calling. Its proximity to the laws of the Festivals and firstfruits
implies its relationship to holiness.
Meat and milk
represent death and life. These two are not to be mixed.
the Feast of Unleavened Breads – at the Passover seder – we took four cups of “the
blood of the Covenant” (v.8). We have just celebrated Hag Shavuot – the
betrothal feast, where we said, “Everything that Yahweh has spoken, we will
do and we will learn (v.7).” Here we can see the origin of the words that we
spoke. Now we are to show our love for Yahweh our God by doing what He says, and
learning by our doing. First we must hear what He says.
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who chose us from among all peoples by
giving us Your Torah.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the
Amen. 25 "If you lend money to My people, to the poor
among you, you are not to act as a creditor to him; you shall
not charge him interest. 26 "If you ever take your
neighbor's cloak as a pledge, you are to return it to him before
the sun sets, 27 for that is his only covering; it is
his cloak for his body. What else shall he sleep in? And it
shall come about that when he cries out to Me, I will hear him,
for I am gracious. 28 "You shall not curse God, nor
curse a ruler of your people. 29 "You shall not delay
the offering from your harvest and your vintage. The firstborn
of your sons you shall give to Me. 30 "You shall do
the same with your oxen and with your sheep. It shall be with
its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to
Me. 31 "You shall be holy men to Me, therefore you
shall not eat any flesh torn to pieces in the field; you shall
throw it to the dogs.
"You shall not bear a false report; do not join your hand with a wicked man to
be a malicious witness. 2 "You shall not follow the masses in doing
evil, nor shall you testify in a dispute so as to turn aside after a multitude
in order to pervert justice; 3 nor shall you be partial to a poor man
in his dispute. 4 "If you meet your enemy's ox or his donkey
wandering away, you shall surely return it to him. 5 "If you see the
donkey of one who hates you lying helpless under its load, you shall refrain
from leaving it to him, you shall surely release it with him. 6 "You
shall not pervert the justice due to your needy brother in his dispute. 7
"Keep far from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent or the righteous,
for I will not acquit the guilty. 8 "You shall not take a bribe, for
a bribe blinds the clear-sighted and subverts the cause of the just. 9
"You shall not oppress a stranger, since you yourselves know the feelings of a
stranger, for you also were strangers in the land of Egypt. 10 "You
shall sow your land for six years and gather in its yield, 11 but on
the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, so that the needy of your
people may eat; and whatever they leave the beast of the field may eat. You are
to do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.
12 "Six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you
shall cease from labor so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of
your female slave, as well as your stranger, may refresh themselves. 13
"Now concerning everything which I have said to you, be on your guard; and do
not mention the name of other gods, nor let them be heard from your mouth.
14 "Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me. 15
"You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Breads; for seven days you are to eat
unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib,
for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed.
16 "Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first
fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the
Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors
from the field. 17 "Three times a year all your males shall appear
before Yahweh GOD. 18 "You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice
with leavened bread; nor is the fat of My feast to remain overnight until
morning. 19 "You shall bring the choice first fruits of your soil
into the house of Yahweh your God. "You are not to boil a young goat in the milk
of its mother.
20 "Behold, I am going to send an angel before you to guard you along
the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 "Be
on your guard before him and obey his voice; do not be rebellious toward him,
for he will not pardon your transgression, since My name is in him. 22
"But if you truly obey his voice and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy
to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 "For My
angel will go before you and bring you in to the land of the Amorites, the
Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I
will completely destroy them. 24 "You shall not worship their gods,
nor serve them, nor do according to their deeds; but you shall utterly overthrow
them and break their sacred pillars in pieces. 25 "But you shall
serve Yahweh your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will
remove sickness from your midst.
26 "There shall be no one miscarrying or barren in your land; I will
fulfill the number of your days. 27 "I will send My terror ahead of
you, and throw into confusion all the people among whom you come, and I will
make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 "I will send
hornets ahead of you so that they will drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites,
and the Hittites before you. 29 "I will not drive them out before you
in a single year, that the land may not become desolate and the beasts of the
field become too numerous for you. 30 "I will drive them out before
you little by little, until you become fruitful and take possession of the land.
31 "I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the
Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; for I will deliver
the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before
you. 32 "You shall make no covenant with them or with their gods.
33 "They shall not live in your land, because they will make you sin
against Me; for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you."
24:1 Then He said to Moses, "Come up to Yahweh, you and Aaron, Nadab
and Abihu and seventy of the elders of Israel, and you shall worship at a
distance. 2 "Moses alone, however, shall come near to Yahweh, but
they shall not come near, nor shall the people come up with him." 3
Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of Yahweh and all the
ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice and said, "All the words
which Yahweh has spoken we will do!" 4 Moses wrote down all the words
of Yahweh. Then he arose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of
the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5
He sent young men of the sons of Israel, and they offered burnt offerings and
sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to Yahweh. 6 Moses took
half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half of the blood he
sprinkled on the altar. 7 Then he took the book of the covenant and
read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, "All that Yahweh has spoken
we will do, and we will be obedient!" 8 So Moses took the blood and
sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant, which
Yahweh has made with you in accordance with all these words."
Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of
Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there
appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself. 11
Yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel;
and they saw God, and they ate and drank. 12 Now Yahweh said to
Moses, "Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the
stone tablets with the law and the commandment which I have written for their
instruction." 13 So Moses arose with Joshua his servant, and Moses
went up to the mountain of God. 14 But to the elders he said, "Wait
here for us until we return to you. And behold, Aaron and Hur are with you;
whoever has a legal matter, let him approach them." 15 Then Moses
went up to the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. 16 The
glory of Yahweh rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days;
and on the seventh day He called to Moses from the midst of the cloud. 17
And to the eyes of the sons of Israel the appearance of the glory of Yahweh was
like a consuming fire on the mountain top. 18 Moses entered the midst
of the cloud as he went up to the mountain; and Moses was on the mountain forty
days and forty nights.
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who in giving us Yeshua, the Living
Torah, has planted everlasting life in our midst.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the
"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King
of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets, delighting
in their words which were spoken truthfully.
Blessed are You, Yahweh, Who chose the
Torah, Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and the prophets of truth and
“Behold, I have refined you, but
not as silver; I have tested you in the furnace of affliction.”
49:3 – And He said
to Me, “You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory.”
"Instead of bronze I will bring gold, and instead of iron I will bring silver,
and instead of wood, bronze, and instead of stones, iron. And I will make peace
your administrators and righteousness your overseers. 18 "Violence
will not be heard again in your land, nor devastation or destruction within your
borders; but you will call your walls salvation, and your gates praise. 19
"No longer will you have the sun for light by day, nor for brightness will the
moon give you light; but you will have Yahweh for an everlasting light, and your
God for your glory. 20 "Your sun will no longer set, nor will your
moon wane; for you will have Yahweh for an everlasting light, and the days of
your mourning will be over. 21 "Then all your people will be
righteous; they will possess the land forever, the branch of My planting, the
work of My hands, that I may be glorified. 22 "The smallest one will
become a clan, and the least one a mighty nation. I, Yahweh, will hasten it in
The Spirit of Lord Yahweh is upon me, Because Yahweh has anointed me to bring
good news to the afflicted; He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to
proclaim liberty to captives and freedom to prisoners; 2 to proclaim
the favorable year of Yahweh and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all
who mourn, 3 to grant those who mourn in Zion, giving them a
garland instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, the mantle of
praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of
righteousness, the planting of Yahweh, that He may be glorified. 4
Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, they will raise up the former
devastations; and they will repair the ruined cities, the desolations of many
generations. 5 Strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, and
foreigners will be your farmers and your vinedressers.
But you will be called the priests of Yahweh; you will be spoken of as ministers
of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, and in their riches you will
boast. 7 Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, and
instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore
they will possess a double portion in their land, everlasting joy will be
theirs. 8 For I, Yahweh, love justice, I hate robbery in the burnt
offering; and I will faithfully give them their recompense and make an
everlasting covenant with them. 9 Then their offspring will be known
among the nations, and their descendants in the midst of the peoples. All who
see them will recognize them because they are the offspring whom Yahweh has
blessed. 10 I will rejoice greatly in Yahweh, my soul will exult in
my God; for He has clothed me with garments of salvation, He has wrapped me with
a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, and as a
bride adorns herself with her jewels. 11 For as the earth brings
forth its sprouts, and as a garden causes the things sown in it to spring up, so
Lord Yahweh will cause righteousness and praise to spring up before all the
1 Kings 6:11-13
Amen. 11 Now the word of Yahweh came to Solomon
saying, 12 “Concerning this house which you are building, if you will
walk in My statutes and execute My ordinances and keep all My commandments by
walking in them, then I will carry out My word with you which I spoke to David
your father. 13 And I will dwell among the sons of Israel, and will
not forsake My people Israel.”
(To be sung.) For the choir director; according to Jonath elem
A Mikhtam of David, when the Philistines seized him in Gath.
Be gracious to me, O God, for man has trampled upon me; fighting all day long he
oppresses me. 2 My foes have trampled upon me all day long, for they
are many who fight proudly against me. 3 When I am afraid, I will put
my trust in You. 4 In God, whose word I praise, in God I have put my
trust; I shall not be afraid. What can mere man do to me? 5 All day
long they distort my words; all their thoughts are against me for evil. 6
They attack, they lurk, they watch my steps, as they have waited to take my
life. 7 Because of wickedness, cast them forth, in anger put down the
peoples, O God! 8 You have taken account of my wanderings; put my
tears in Your bottle. Are they not in Your book? 9 Then my enemies
will turn back in the day when I call; this I know, that God is for me. 10
In God, whose word I praise, in Yahweh, whose word I praise, 11 In
God I have put my trust, I shall not be afraid. What can man do to me? 12
Your vows are binding upon me, O God; I will render thank offerings to You.
13 For You have delivered my soul from death, indeed my feet from
stumbling, so that I may walk before God in the light of the living.
Amen. 1 When Yeshua saw the crowds, He went up on the
mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him. 2 He
opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying, 3 "Blessed are the
poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 "Blessed are
those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. 5 "Blessed are the
gentle, for they shall inherit the earth. 6 "Blessed are those who
hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. 7
"Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy. 8 "Blessed
are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 9 "Blessed are the
peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. 10 "Blessed are
those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the
kingdom of heaven. 11 "Blessed are you when people insult you and
persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me.
12 "Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the
same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
Amen. 13 "You are the salt of the earth; but if the
salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good
for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men. 14
"You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden; 15
nor does anyone light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on the lampstand,
and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16 "Let your light
shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify
your Father who is in heaven. 17 "Do not think that I came to abolish
the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. 18
"For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest
letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. 19
"Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others
to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever
keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
20 "For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the
scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.
Amen. 21 "You have heard that the ancients were told,
'YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT MURDER ' and 'Whoever commits murder shall be liable to
the court.' 22 "But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his
brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever says to his brother, 'You
good-for-nothing,' shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever says,
'You fool,' shall be guilty enough to go into the fiery hell. 23
"Therefore if you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember
that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your offering
there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then
come and present your offering. 25 "Make friends quickly with your
opponent at law while you are with him on the way, so that your opponent may not
hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and you be thrown into
prison. 26 "Truly I say to you, you will not come out of there until
you have paid up the last cent.
Amen. 27 "You have heard that it was said, 'YOU SHALL
NOT COMMIT ADULTERY'; 28 but I say to you that everyone who looks at
a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
29 "If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it
from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than
for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30 "If your right hand
makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; for it is better for you to
lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to go into hell.
31 "It was said, 'WHOEVER SENDS HIS WIFE AWAY, LET HIM GIVE HER A
CERTIFICATE OF DIVORCE'; 32 but I say to you that everyone who
divorces his wife, except for the reason of unchastity, makes her commit
adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery. 33
"Again, you have heard that the ancients were told, 'YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FALSE
VOWS, BUT SHALL FULFILL YOUR VOWS TO YAHWEH.' 34 "But I say to you,
make no oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God, 35
or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet, or by Jerusalem, for it is
THE CITY OF THE GREAT KING. 36 "Nor shall you make an oath by your
head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. 37 "But let your
statement be, 'Yes, yes ' or 'No, no'; anything beyond these is of evil.
Amen. 38 "You have heard that it was said, 'AN EYE FOR
AN EYE, AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH.' 39 "But I say to you, do not resist
an evil person; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him
also. 40 "If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, let him
have your coat also. 41 "Whoever forces you to go one mile, go with
him two. 42 "Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from
him who wants to borrow from you. 43 "You have heard that it was
said, 'YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR and hate your enemy.' 44 "But I
say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45
so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun
to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the
unrighteous. 46 "For if you love those who love you, what reward do
you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 "If you
greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the
Gentiles do the same? 48 "Therefore you are to be perfect, as your
heavenly Father is perfect.
Amen. 26 While they were
eating, Yeshua took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to
the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." 27 And when He
had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it,
all of you; 28 for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured
out for many for forgiveness of sins. 29 "But I say to you, I will
not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it
new with you in My Father's kingdom." 30 After singing a hymn, they
went out to the Mount of Olives.
"Blessed are You, Yahweh
our God, King of the Universe,
Rock of Ages, righteous
throughout all generations.
You are the faithful God,
promising and then performing, speaking and then fulfilling,
for all Your words are true
Faithful are You, Yahweh
our God, and faithful are Your words,
for no word of Yours shall
You are a faithful and
merciful God and King.
Blessed are You, Yahweh our
God, Who are faithful in fulfilling all Your words."