Temple Triennial Cycle - Commentaries
Sabbath Ten (May 18, 2002)
(These are the judgments),
commonly called Exodus 21:1 – 22:25
for seven Torah readers)
1 Amen* 21:1 "Now these are the judgments which you are to set before them.
2 "If you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall serve for six years; but on the seventh he shall go out as a free man without payment. 3 "If he comes alone, he shall go out alone; if he is the husband of a wife, then his wife shall go out with him. 4 "If his master gives him a wife, and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall belong to her master, and he shall go out alone. 5 "But if the slave plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife and my children; I will not go out as a free man,' 6 then his master shall bring him to God, then he shall bring him to the door or the doorpost. And his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him permanently. 7 "And if a man sells his daughter as a female slave, she is not to go free as the male slaves do. 8 "If she is displeasing in the eyes of her master who designated her for himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He does not have authority to sell her to a foreign people because of his unfairness to her. 9 "And if he designates her for his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters. 10 "If he takes to himself another woman, he may not reduce her food, her clothing, or her conjugal rights. 11 "And if he will not do these three things for her, then she shall go out for nothing, without payment of money.
2 Amen* 12 "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death. 13 "But if he did not lie in wait for him, but God let him fall into his hand, then I will appoint you a place to which he may flee. 14 "If, however, a man acts presumptuously toward his neighbor, so as to kill him craftily, you are to take him even from My altar, that he may die. 15 "And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. 16 "And he who kidnaps a man, whether he sells him or he is found in his possession, shall surely be put to death. 17 "And he who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.
3 Amen* 18 "And if men have a quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but remains in bed; 19 if he gets up and walks around outside on his staff, then he who struck him shall go unpunished; he shall only pay for his loss of time, and shall take care of him until he is completely healed. 20 "And if a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod and he dies at his hand, he shall be punished. 21 "If, however, he survives a day or two, no vengeance shall be taken; for he is his property. 22 "And if men struggle with each other and strike a woman with child so that she has a miscarriage, yet there is no further injury, he shall surely be fined as the woman's husband may demand of him; and he shall pay as the judges decide. 23 "But if there is any further injury, then you shall appoint as a penalty life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise. 26 "And if a man strikes the eye of his male or female slave, and destroys it, he shall let him go free on account of his eye. 27 "And if he knocks out a tooth of his male or female slave, he shall let him go free on account of his tooth.
4 Amen* 28 "And if an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall surely be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall go unpunished. 29 "If, however, an ox was previously in the habit of goring, and its owner has been warned, yet he does not confine it, and it kills a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death. 30 "If a ransom is demanded of him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is demanded of him. 31 "Whether it gores a son or a daughter, it shall be done to him according to the same rule. 32 "If the ox gores a male or female slave, the owner shall give his or her master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. 33 "And if a man opens a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it over, and an ox or a donkey falls into it, 34 the owner of the pit shall make restitution; he shall give money to its owner, and the dead animal shall become his. 35 "And if one man's ox hurts another's so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide its price equally; and also they shall divide the dead ox. 36 "Or if it is known that the ox was previously in the habit of goring, yet its owner has not confined it, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall become his.
5 Amen* 22:1 "If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. 2 "If the thief is caught while breaking in, and is struck so that he dies, there will be no bloodguiltiness on his account. 3 "But if the sun has risen on him, there will be bloodguiltiness on his account. He shall surely make restitution; if he owns nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. 4 "If what he stole is actually found alive in his possession, whether an ox or a donkey or a sheep, he shall pay double. 5 "If a man lets a field or vineyard be grazed bare and lets his animal loose so that it grazes in another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard. 6 "If a fire breaks out and spreads to thorn bushes, so that stacked grain or the standing grain or the field itself is consumed, he who started the fire shall surely make restitution. 7 "If a man gives his neighbor money or goods to keep for him, and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is caught, he shall pay double. 8 "If the thief is not caught, then the owner of the house shall appear before the judges, to determine whether he laid his hands on his neighbor's property. 9 "For every breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, 'This is it,' the case of both parties shall come before the judges; he whom the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor.
6 Amen* 10 "If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep for him, and it dies or is hurt or is driven away while no one is looking, 11 an oath before Yahweh shall be made by the two of them, that he has not laid hands on his neighbor's property; and its owner shall accept it, and he shall not make restitution. 12 "But if it is actually stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner. 13 "If it is all torn to pieces, let him bring it as evidence; he shall not make restitution for what has been torn to pieces. 14 "And if a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, he shall make full restitution. 15 "If its owner is with it, he shall not make restitution; if it is hired, it came for its hire.
7 Amen* 16 "And if a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged, and lies with her, he must pay a dowry for her to be his wife. 17 "If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money equal to the dowry for virgins. 18 "You shall not allow a sorceress to live. 19 "Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death. 20 "He who sacrifices to any god, other than to Yahweh alone, shall be utterly destroyed. 21 "And you shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. 22 "You shall not afflict any widow or orphan. 23 "If you afflict him at all, and if he does cry out to Me, I will surely hear his cry; 24 and My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall become widows and your children fatherless. 25 "If you lend money to My people, to the poor among you, you are not to act as a creditor to him; you shall not charge him interest.
1 Thus says Yahweh, "Preserve justice, and do righteousness, For My salvation is about to come And My righteousness to be revealed. 2 "How blessed is the man who does this, And the son of man who takes hold of it; Who keeps from profaning the sabbath, And keeps his hand from doing any evil." 3 Let not the foreigner who has joined himself to Yahweh say, "Yahweh will surely separate me from His people." Neither let the eunuch say, "Behold, I am a dry tree." 4 For thus says Yahweh, "To the eunuchs who keep My sabbaths, And choose what pleases Me, And hold fast My covenant, 5 To them I will give in My house and within My walls a memorial, And a name better than that of sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name which will not be cut off. 6 "Also the foreigners who join themselves to Yahweh, To minister to Him, and to love the name of Yahweh, To be His servants, every one who keeps from profaning the sabbath, And holds fast My covenant; 7 Even those I will bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be acceptable on My altar; For My house will be called a house of prayer for all the peoples."
Psalm 55 For the choir director; on stringed instruments. A Maskil of David.
1 Give ear to my prayer, O God; And do not hide Thyself from my supplication. 2 Give heed to me, and answer me; I am restless in my complaint and am surely distracted, 3 Because of the voice of the enemy, Because of the pressure of the wicked; For they bring down trouble upon me, And in anger they bear a grudge against me. 4 My heart is in anguish within me, And the terrors of death have fallen upon me. 5 Fear and trembling come upon me; And horror has overwhelmed me. 6 And I said, "Oh, that I had wings like a dove! I would fly away and be at rest. 7 "Behold, I would wander far away, I would lodge in the wilderness. Selah. 8 "I would hasten to my place of refuge From the stormy wind and tempest." 9 Confuse, O Lord, divide their tongues, For I have seen violence and strife in the city. 10 Day and night they go around her upon her walls; And iniquity and mischief are in her midst. 11 Destruction is in her midst; Oppression and deceit do not depart from her streets. 12 For it is not an enemy who reproaches me, Then I could bear it; Nor is it one who hates me who has exalted himself against me, Then I could hide myself from him. 13 But it is you, a man my equal, My companion and my familiar friend. 14 We who had sweet fellowship together, Walked in the house of God in the throng. 15 Let death come deceitfully upon them; Let them go down alive to Sheol, For evil is in their dwelling, in their midst. 16 As for me, I shall call upon God, And Yahweh will save me. 17 Evening and morning and at noon, I will complain and murmur, And He will hear my voice. 18 He will redeem my soul in peace from the battle which is against me, For they are many who strive with me. 19 God will hear and answer them-- Even the one who sits enthroned from of old-- Selah. With whom there is no change, And who do not fear God. 20 He has put forth his hands against those who were at peace with him; He has violated his covenant. 21 His speech was smoother than butter, But his heart was war; His words were softer than oil, Yet they were drawn swords. 22 Cast your burden upon Yahweh, and He will sustain you; He will never allow the righteous to be shaken. 23 But Thou, O God, wilt bring them down to the pit of destruction; Men of bloodshed and deceit will not live out half their days. But I will trust in Thee.
38 "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 39 "But I say to you, do not resist him who is evil; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 40 "And if anyone wants to sue you, and take your shirt, let him have your coat also. 41 "And whoever shall force you to go one mile, go with him two. 42 "Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.
1 "Do not judge lest you be judged. 2 "For in the way you judge, you will be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you. 3 "And why do you look at the speck that is in your brother's eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? 4 "Or how can you say to your brother, 'Let me take the speck out of your eye,' and behold, the log is in your own eye? 5 "You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother's eye.
(V.1) “These are the judgments” – the moral and ethical laws, the first of three categories of commandments.
(V. 22) “He shall pay as the judges decide.” These are rules for the judges to use in making fair resolutions. They were never intended as rules for taking personal retribution.
Several words of different meanings are translated “judge” in various Scriptures. The “Do not judge” in Matthew 7 means “Do not condemn”, as in “do not place yourself in the position reserved for the elected judges.” However, we are required to make personal judgments of the type where we determine what the actions of another might require of us.
For an extreme example: If I see someone trying to violently take another’s life, I should immediately “judge” whose side to take, and what kind of response I should make. If the perpetrator is successful, it is not my right to take personal vengeance (I am not excluding a right of defense – to use deadly force to stop a murder); however, it is m duty to be a witness to the judges. If the judges find the perpetrator guilty, then they are to require life for life. In the Biblical setting, following a guilty verdict for a capital offense, witnesses normally cast the first stones.
[From the discussion:] One who was himself guilty of a certain crime could not be an acceptable witness against another for that type of crime. In the case of the adulteress brought to Yeshua, a case was being sought against Yeshua as an unqualified judge. Firstly, He properly “judged”/discerned the sin; secondly, He properly “judged”/decided the appropriate response; thirdly, He did not “judge/condemn the woman, because He was not currently in the position of a judge. Additionally, He caused the witnesses to be convicted, because they were too guilty to be appropriate witnesses.
Fair judgment (an eye for an eye) means that a proportionate judgment is to be meted for the loss that was caused. For the loss of an eye, the injured party should be awarded an amount to make up for his loss, including wages and suffering: the defendant’s eye is not put out in retribution. So, we see that Yeshua was correcting a misuse of Torah (“You have heard that it was said”, concerning personal retribution); He was not changing Torah
Another issue here is: before we try to force correction upon a brother for a perceived wrong perspective, we should consider the propriety of our own perspectives. This often applies to judging another’s motives.
There are priorities in the commandments: some take precedence over others. On one hand, saving a life takes precedence over most other commandments. I went to a store and made a purchase on a Sabbath for my mother when she was dying, while considering how easily my motives might be misjudged if certain people would see me. On the other hand, “precedence” may be misused as an excuse for violating God’s instruction, in order to please oneself.
Sabbath Eleven (May 25, 2002)
(When you lend),
commonly called Exodus 22:25 (Heb 22:24) –24:18
for seven Torah readers)
1 Amen* 25 "When you lend money to My people, to the poor among you, you are not to act as a creditor to him; you shall not charge him interest. 26 "If you ever take your neighbor's cloak as a pledge, you are to return it to him before the sun sets, 27 for that is his only covering; it is his cloak for his body. What else shall he sleep in? And it shall come about that when he cries out to Me, I will hear him, for I am gracious.
28 "You shall not curse God, nor curse a ruler of your people. 29 "You shall not delay the offering from your harvest and your vintage. The first-born of your sons you shall give to Me. 30 "You shall do the same with your oxen and with your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me. 31 "And you shall be holy men to Me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh torn to pieces in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.
2 Amen* 23:1 "You shall not bear a false report; do not join your hand with a wicked man to be a malicious witness. 2 "You shall not follow a multitude in doing evil, nor shall you testify in a dispute so as to turn aside after a multitude in order to pervert justice; 3 nor shall you be partial to a poor man in his dispute. 4 "If you meet your enemy's ox or his donkey wandering away, you shall surely return it to him. 5 "If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying helpless under its load, you shall refrain from leaving it to him, you shall surely release it with him. 6 "You shall not pervert the justice due to your needy brother in his dispute. 7 "Keep far from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent or the righteous, for I will not acquit the guilty. 8 "And you shall not take a bribe, for a bribe blinds the clear-sighted and subverts the cause of the just. 9 "And you shall not oppress a stranger, since you yourselves know the feelings of a stranger, for you also were strangers in the land of Egypt. 10 "And you shall sow your land for six years and gather in its yield, 11 but on the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, so that the needy of your people may eat; and whatever they leave the beast of the field may eat. You are to do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.
3 Amen* 12 "Six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor in order that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your female slave, as well as your stranger, may refresh themselves. 13 "Now concerning everything which I have said to you, be on your guard; and do not mention the name of other gods, nor let them be heard from your mouth.
14 "Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me. 15 "You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed. 16 "Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field. 17 "Three times a year all your males shall appear before Yahweh God. 18 "You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; nor is the fat of My feast to remain overnight until morning. 19 "You shall bring the choice first fruits of your soil into the house of Yahweh your God. You are not to boil a kid in the milk of its mother.
4 Amen* 20 "Behold, I am going to send an angel before you to guard you along the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 "Be on your guard before him and obey his voice; do not be rebellious toward him, for he will not pardon your transgression, since My name is in him. 22 "But if you will truly obey his voice and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 "For My angel will go before you and bring you in to the land of the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I will completely destroy them. 24 "You shall not worship their gods, nor serve them, nor do according to their deeds; but you shall utterly overthrow them, and break their sacred pillars in pieces. 25 "But you shall serve Yahweh your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will remove sickness from your midst.
5 Amen* 26 "There shall be no one miscarrying or barren in your land; I will fulfill the number of your days. 27 "I will send My terror ahead of you, and throw into confusion all the people among whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 "And I will send hornets ahead of you, that they may drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites before you. 29 "I will not drive them out before you in a single year, that the land may not become desolate, and the beasts of the field become too numerous for you. 30 "I will drive them out before you little by little, until you become fruitful and take possession of the land. 31 "And I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you. 32 "You shall make no covenant with them or with their gods. 33 "They shall not live in your land, lest they make you sin against Me; for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you."
6 Amen* 24:1 Then He said to Moses, "Come up to Yahweh, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the elders of Israel, and you shall worship at a distance. 2 "Moses alone, however, shall come near to Yahweh, but they shall not come near, nor shall the people come up with him." 3 Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of Yahweh and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, "All the words which Yahweh has spoken we will do!" 4 And Moses wrote down all the words of Yahweh. Then he arose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 And he sent young men of the sons of Israel, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to Yahweh. 6 And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 Then he took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, "All that Yahweh has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!" 8 So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Behold the blood of the covenant, which Yahweh has made with you in accordance with all these words." 7 Amen* 9 Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself. 11 Yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel; and they beheld God, and they ate and drank. 12 Now Yahweh said to Moses, "Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the law and the commandment which I have written for their instruction." 13 So Moses arose with Joshua his servant, and Moses went up to the mountain of God. 14 But to the elders he said, "Wait here for us until we return to you. And behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whoever has a legal matter, let him approach them." 15 Then Moses went up to the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. 16 And the glory of Yahweh rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days; and on the seventh day He called to Moses from the midst of the cloud. 17 And to the eyes of the sons of Israel the appearance of the glory of Yahweh was like a consuming fire on the mountain top. 18 And Moses entered the midst of the cloud as he went up to the mountain; and Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.
“Behold, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have tested you in the furnace of affliction.”
And He said to Me, “You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory.”
17 "Instead of bronze I will bring gold, And instead of iron I will bring silver, And instead of wood, bronze, And instead of stones, iron. And I will make peace your administrators, And righteousness your overseers. 18 "Violence will not be heard again in your land, Nor devastation or destruction within your borders; But you will call your walls salvation, and your gates praise. 19 "No longer will you have the sun for light by day, Nor for brightness will the moon give you light; But you will have Yahweh for an everlasting light, And your God for your glory. 20 "Your sun will set no more, Neither will your moon wane; For you will have Yahweh for an everlasting light, And the days of your mourning will be finished. 21 "Then all your people will be righteous; They will possess the land forever, The branch of My planting, The work of My hands, That I may be glorified. 22 "The smallest one will become a clan, And the least one a mighty nation. I, Yahweh, will hasten it in its time."
61:1 The Spirit of Yahweh God is upon me, Because Yahweh has anointed me To bring good news to the afflicted; He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to captives, And freedom to prisoners; 2 To proclaim the favorable year of Yahweh, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn, 3 To grant those who mourn in Zion, Giving them a garland instead of ashes, The oil of gladness instead of mourning, The mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, The planting of Yahweh, that He may be glorified. 4 Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, They will raise up the former devastations, And they will repair the ruined cities, The desolations of many generations. 5 And strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, And foreigners will be your farmers and your vinedressers. 6 But you will be called the priests of Yahweh; You will be spoken of as ministers of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, And in their riches you will boast. 7 Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, And instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, Everlasting joy will be theirs. 8 For I, Yahweh, love justice, I hate robbery in the burnt offering; And I will faithfully give them their recompense, And I will make an everlasting covenant with them. 9 Then their offspring will be known among the nations, And their descendants in the midst of the peoples. All who see them will recognize them Because they are the offspring whom Yahweh has blessed. 10 I will rejoice greatly in Yahweh, My soul will exult in my God; For He has clothed me with garments of salvation, He has wrapped me with a robe of righteousness, As a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, And as a bride adorns herself with her jewels. 11 For as the earth brings forth its sprouts, And as a garden causes the things sown in it to spring up, So Yahweh God will cause righteousness and praise To spring up before all the nations.
1 Kings 6:11-13
11 Now the word of Yahweh came to Solomon saying, 12 "Concerning this house which you are building, if you will walk in My statutes and execute My ordinances and keep all My commandments by walking in them, then I will carry out My word with you which I spoke to David your father. 13 "And I will dwell among the sons of Israel, and will not forsake My people Israel."
Psalm 56 For the choir director; according to Jonath elem rehokim. A Mikhtam of David, when the Philistines seized him in Gath.
1 Be gracious to me, O God, for man has trampled upon me; Fighting all day long he oppresses me. 2 My foes have trampled upon me all day long, For they are many who fight proudly against me. 3 When I am afraid, I will put my trust in Thee. 4 In God, whose word I praise, In God I have put my trust; I shall not be afraid. What can mere man do to me? 5 All day long they distort my words; All their thoughts are against me for evil. 6 They attack, they lurk, They watch my steps, As they have waited to take my life. 7 Because of wickedness, cast them forth, In anger put down the peoples, O God! 8 Thou hast taken account of my wanderings; Put my tears in Thy bottle; Are they not in Thy book? 9 Then my enemies will turn back in the day when I call; This I know, that God is for me. 10 In God, whose word I praise, In Yahweh, whose word I praise, 11 In God I have put my trust, I shall not be afraid. What can man do to me? 12 Thy vows are binding upon me, O God; I will render thank offerings to Thee. 13 For Thou hast delivered my soul from death, Indeed my feet from stumbling, So that I may walk before God In the light of the living.
1 And when He saw the multitudes, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him. 2 And opening His mouth He began to teach them, saying, 3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. 5 "Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth. 6 "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. 7 "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy. 8 "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 9 "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. 10 "Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 "Blessed are you when men cast insults at you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, on account of Me. 12 "Rejoice, and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 13 "You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how will it be made salty again? It is good for nothing anymore, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men. 14 "You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 "Nor do men light a lamp, and put it under the peck-measure, but on the lampstand; and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16 "Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 17 "Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish, but to fulfill. 18 "For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass away from the Law, until all is accomplished. 19 "Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and so teaches others, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 "For I say to you, that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter the kingdom of heaven. 21 "You have heard that the ancients were told, 'You shall not commit murder' and 'Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.' 22 "But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca,' shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever shall say, 'You fool,' shall be guilty enough to go into the fiery hell. 23 "If therefore you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your offering there before the altar, and go your way; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and present your offering. 25 "Make friends quickly with your opponent at law while you are with him on the way, in order that your opponent may not deliver you to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and you be thrown into prison. 26 "Truly I say to you, you shall not come out of there, until you have paid up the last cent. 27 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery'; 28 but I say to you, that everyone who looks on a woman to lust for her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 29 "And if your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out, and throw it from you; for it is better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30 "And if your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off, and throw it from you; for it is better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to go into hell. 31 "And it was said, 'Whoever sends his wife away, let him give her a certificate of divorce'; 32 but I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except for the cause of unchastity, makes her commit adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery. 33 "Again, you have heard that the ancients were told, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall fulfill your vows to the Lord.' 34 "But I say to you, make no oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God, 35 or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 36 "Nor shall you make an oath by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. 37 "But let your statement be, 'Yes, yes' or 'No, no'; and anything beyond these is of evil. 38 "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 39 "But I say to you, do not resist him who is evil; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 40 "And if anyone wants to sue you, and take your shirt, let him have your coat also. 41 "And whoever shall force you to go one mile, go with him two. 42 "Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you. 43 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 44 "But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you 45 in order that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 46 "For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax-gatherers do the same? 47 "And if you greet your brothers only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? 48 "Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.
26 And while they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." 27 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you; 28 for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. 29 "But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom." 30 And after singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
(V.25) A loan is a required form of charity, and one of the highest forms, because it allows a borrower to gain financial stability without the embarrassment of depending upon gifts.
(V.28) The first of our increase (bikkurim), which is normally the most treasured, is to be separated for God’s service.
(V. 30) An animal that was killed represents all forbidden foods. Eating forbidden foods keeps us from being “holy” – separate to God.
(V.23:1) It is forbidden to believe unverified gossip.
3 Amen* 12 "Six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor in order that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your female slave, as well as your stranger, may refresh themselves. 13 "Now concerning everything which I have said to you, be on your guard; and do not mention the name of other gods, nor let them be heard from your mouth.
14 "Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me. 15 "You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed. 16 "Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field. 17 "Three times a year all your males shall appear before Yahweh God. 18 "You shall not offer the blood of My (Passover) sacrifice with leavened bread (before noon on Nisan 14); nor is the fat of My feast (Yahweh’s Feast – the origin of the term “The Lord’s Supper”) to remain overnight until morning. 19 "You shall bring the choice first fruits of your soil (the seven species: wheat, barley, figs, grapes, pomegranates, olives, and dates) into the house of Yahweh your God. You are not to boil a kid in the milk of its mother.
From v.10 we have some ordinances.
First is the Sabbatical Year, and its relative, the weekly Sabbath. Ceasing from labor, “resting”, does not imply catching up on sleep from a too-busy work week. It means forsaking mundane activity in order to be refreshed by a day dedicated to the worship of God, and this includes the commandment to assemble for worship.
Leviticus 23:3 – “For six days work may be done; but the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, a sacred assembly.”
Next we have the three Feasts of Yahweh. Note that there are three annual Feasts, with seven annual Holy Days / Yom Tovim, observed as Sabbaths. They are:
[The “Day Prior” is the Preparation of the Passover (Nisan 14).]
(1) The first day is a Yom Tov when the Passover is eaten (Nisan 15).
[The second day is Waving Day, when we start counting the omer (Nisan 16).]
(2) The seventh day is a Yom Tov (Nisan 21).
(3) It is a Yom Tov (Sivan 6).
(4) Day of Trumpeting / Yom Teruah (two weeks prior) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 1).
(5) Day of the Atonements / Yom HaKippurim (four days prior) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 10).
(6) First day of Feast of Tabernacles is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 15).
(7) Eighth Day Assembly / Shemini Atzereh (following the Feast) is a Yom Tov (Tishrei 22).
The Feasts are related to the Temple, and men made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem for each of the three.
The Holy Temple existed for most of the fourth millennium. The Sadducees existed for about the last 200 years; they could not observe any of the above on different days than the Pharisees.
We have one Bible that begins with The First Things / Genesis and ends with the Revelation of Yeshua the Messiah. The divisions of “OT” and “NT”, which are commonly understood by dispensationalists to be “obsolete testament” and “replacement testament”, were added by Rome centuries after the apostles.
Likewise, Rome (Constantine) admits to “changing the Sabbath to Sunday” in the fifth century. The Bible indicates no change in the Sabbath, or the Fourth Commandment.
The Feasts and Holy Days are commonly spoken of as ancient Jewish rites; not for us, not for today, but fulfilled once and for all time. But we are familiar with the many Scriptures that are misused to support such ideas.
“Let no man condemn you (gentile Colossians) for observing Sabbaths, New Moons, and Festivals” (Colossians 2:16) is explained as “Don’t let anyone tell you that you should observe them”.
Breaking bread on the first day of the week (Acts 20:7) is explained as Sunday Communion, instead of the ancient Biblical Havdallah – an end-of-Sabbath service on Saturday night on which Paul preached until midnight. (Midnight of the first day of the Biblical week is about six hours after Saturday’s sunset, the end of Sabbath. Havdallah traditionally includes breaking of bread and teaching.)
Bringing in the tithes on the first day of the week (1 Corinthians 16:2) is explained as Sunday observance, instead of the ancient practice of waiting until the Sabbath was over to deal with the tithe of the previous week’s increase.
Yeshua was the adopted son of a builder – a stone mason, not a carpenter. By Him all things were created, and He wrote the Torah in stone for Moses. The “Law of Christ” (1 Corinthians 9:21) is the Torah, not a replacement.
* * Incomplete * *
Sabbath Twelve (June 1, 2002)
(Take for Me a portion),
commonly called Exodus 25:1 – 26:30
for seven Torah readers)
[The ordinances for construction of the Tabernacle]
1 Amen* 25:1 Then Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 2 "Tell the sons of Israel to take for Me a portion; from every man whose heart moves him you shall raise My contribution. 3 "And this is the contribution which you are to raise from them: gold, silver and bronze, 4 blue, purple and scarlet material, fine linen, goat hair, 5 rams' skins dyed red, porpoise skins, acacia wood, 6 oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense, 7 onyx stones and setting stones, for the ephod and for the breastpiece. 8 "And let them build a sanctuary for Me, that I may dwell among them. 9 "According to all that I am going to show you, as the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furniture, just so you shall construct it.
2 Amen* 10 "And they shall construct an ark of acacia wood two and a half cubits long, and one and a half cubits wide, and one and a half cubits high. 11 "And you shall overlay it with pure gold, inside and out you shall overlay it, and you shall make a gold molding around it. 12 "And you shall cast four gold rings for it, and fasten them on its four feet, and two rings shall be on one side of it and two rings on the other side of it. 13 "And you shall make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. 14 "And you shall put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark, to carry the ark with them. 15 "The poles shall remain in the rings of the ark; they shall not be removed from it. 16 "And you shall put into the ark the testimony which I shall give you. 17 "And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide. 18 "And you shall make two cherubim of gold, make them of hammered work at the two ends of the mercy seat. 19 "And make one cherub at one end and one cherub at the other end; you shall make the cherubim of one piece with the mercy seat at its two ends. 20 "And the cherubim shall have their wings spread upward, covering the mercy seat with their wings and facing one another; the faces of the cherubim are to be turned toward the mercy seat. 21 "And you shall put the mercy seat on top of the ark, and in the ark you shall put the testimony which I shall give to you. 22 "And there I will meet with you; and from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, I will speak to you about all that I will give you in commandment for the sons of Israel.
3 Amen* 23 "And you shall make a table of acacia wood, two cubits long and one cubit wide and one and a half cubits high. 24 "And you shall overlay it with pure gold and make a gold border around it. 25 "And you shall make for it a rim of a handbreadth around it; and you shall make a gold border for the rim around it. 26 "And you shall make four gold rings for it and put rings on the four corners which are on its four feet. 27 "The rings shall be close to the rim as holders for the poles to carry the table. 28 "And you shall make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold, so that with them the table may be carried. 29 "And you shall make its dishes and its pans and its jars and its bowls, with which to pour libations; you shall make them of pure gold. 30 "And you shall set the bread of the Presence on the table before Me at all times.
4 Amen* 31 "Then you shall make a lampstand of pure gold. The lampstand and its base and its shaft are to be made of hammered work; its cups, its bulbs and its flowers shall be of one piece with it. 32 "And six branches shall go out from its sides; three branches of the lampstand from its one side, and three branches of the lampstand from its other side. 33 "Three cups shall be shaped like almond blossoms in the one branch, a bulb and a flower, and three cups shaped like almond blossoms in the other branch, a bulb and a flower-- so for six branches going out from the lampstand; 34 and in the lampstand four cups shaped like almond blossoms, its bulbs and its flowers. 35 "And a bulb shall be under the first pair of branches coming out of it, and a bulb under the second pair of branches coming out of it, and a bulb under the third pair of branches coming out of it, for the six branches coming out of the lampstand. 36 "Their bulbs and their branches shall be of one piece with it; all of it shall be one piece of hammered work of pure gold. 37 "Then you shall make its lamps seven in number; and they shall mount its lamps so as to shed light on the space in front of it. 38 "And its snuffers and their trays shall be of pure gold. 39 "It shall be made from a talent of pure gold, with all these utensils. 40 "And see that you make them after the pattern for them, which was shown to you on the mountain.
5 Amen* 26:1 "Moreover you shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twisted linen and blue and purple and scarlet material; you shall make them with cherubim, the work of a skillful workman. 2 "The length of each curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits; all the curtains shall have the same measurements. 3 "Five curtains shall be joined to one another; and the other five curtains shall be joined to one another. 4 "And you shall make loops of blue on the edge of the outermost curtain in the first set, and likewise you shall make them on the edge of the curtain that is outermost in the second set. 5 "You shall make fifty loops in the one curtain, and you shall make fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that is in the second set; the loops shall be opposite each other. 6 "And you shall make fifty clasps of gold, and join the curtains to one another with the clasps, that the tabernacle may be a unit. 7 "Then you shall make curtains of goats' hair for a tent over the tabernacle; you shall make eleven curtains in all. 8 "The length of each curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits; the eleven curtains shall have the same measurements. 9 "And you shall join five curtains by themselves, and the other six curtains by themselves, and you shall double over the sixth curtain at the front of the tent. 10 "And you shall make fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that is outermost in the first set, and fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that is outermost in the second set. 11 "And you shall make fifty clasps of bronze, and you shall put the clasps into the loops and join the tent together, that it may be a unit. 12 "And the overlapping part that is left over in the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that is left over, shall lap over the back of the tabernacle. 13 "And the cubit on one side and the cubit on the other, of what is left over in the length of the curtains of the tent, shall lap over the sides of the tabernacle on one side and on the other, to cover it.
6 Amen* 14 "And you shall make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of porpoise skins above. 15 "Then you shall make the boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, standing upright. 16 "Ten cubits shall be the length of each board, and one and a half cubits the width of each board. 17 "There shall be two tenons for each board, fitted to one another; thus you shall do for all the boards of the tabernacle. 18 "And you shall make the boards for the tabernacle: twenty boards for the south side. 19 "And you shall make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards, two sockets under one board for its two tenons and two sockets under another board for its two tenons; 20 and for the second side of the tabernacle, on the north side, twenty boards, 21 and their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board and two sockets under another board. 22 "And for the rear of the tabernacle, to the west, you shall make six boards. 23 "And you shall make two boards for the corners of the tabernacle at the rear. 24 "And they shall be double beneath, and together they shall be complete to its top to the first ring; thus it shall be with both of them: they shall form the two corners. 25 "And there shall be eight boards with their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board and two sockets under another board. 26 "Then you shall make bars of acacia wood, five for the boards of one side of the tabernacle, 27 and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle for the rear side to the west. 28 "And the middle bar in the center of the boards shall pass through from end to end. 29 "And you shall overlay the boards with gold and make their rings of gold as holders for the bars; and you shall overlay the bars with gold. 30 "Then you shall erect the tabernacle according to its plan which you have been shown in the mountain.
7 Amen* 31 "And you shall make a veil of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen; it shall be made with cherubim, the work of a skillful workman. 32 "And you shall hang it on four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, their hooks also being of gold, on four sockets of silver. 33 "And you shall hang up the veil under the clasps, and shall bring in the ark of the testimony there within the veil; and the veil shall serve for you as a partition between the holy place and the holy of holies. 34 "And you shall put the mercy seat on the ark of the testimony in the holy of holies. 35 "And you shall set the table outside the veil, and the lampstand opposite the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and you shall put the table on the north side. 36 "And you shall make a screen for the doorway of the tent of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen, the work of a weaver. 37 "And you shall make five pillars of acacia for the screen, and overlay them with gold, their hooks also being of gold; and you shall cast five sockets of bronze for them.
1 Thus says Yahweh, "Heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool. Where then is a house you could build for Me? And where is a place that I may rest? 2 "For My hand made all these things, thus all these things came into being," declares Yahweh. "But to this one I will look, to him who is humble and contrite of spirit, and who trembles at My word. 3 "But he who kills an ox is like one who slays a man; he who sacrifices a lamb is like the one who breaks a dog's neck; he who offers a grain offering is like one who offers swine's blood; he who burns incense is like the one who blesses an idol. As they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delights in their abominations, 4 so I will choose their punishments, and I will bring on them what they dread. Because I called, but no one answered; I spoke, but they did not listen. And they did evil in My sight, and chose that in which I did not delight." 5 Hear the word of Yahweh, you who tremble at His word: "Your brothers who hate you, who exclude you for My name's sake, have said, 'Let Yahweh be glorified, that we may see your joy.' But they will be put to shame. 6 "A voice of uproar from the city, a voice from the temple, the voice of Yahweh who is rendering recompense to His enemies. 7 "Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she gave birth to a boy. 8 "Who has heard such a thing? Who has seen such things? Can a land be born in one day? Can a nation be brought forth all at once? As soon as Zion travailed, she also brought forth her sons. 9 "Shall I bring to the point of birth, and not give delivery?" says Yahweh. "Or shall I who gives delivery shut the womb?" says your God. 10 "Be joyful with Jerusalem and rejoice for her, all you who love her; be exceedingly glad with her, all you who mourn over her, 11 that you may nurse and be satisfied with her comforting breasts, that you may suck and be delighted with her bountiful bosom." 12 For thus says Yahweh, "Behold, I extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the nations like an overflowing stream; and you shall be nursed, you shall be carried on the hip and fondled on the knees. 13 "As one whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you; and you shall be comforted in Jerusalem." 14 Then you shall see this, and your heart shall be glad, and your bones shall flourish like the new grass; And the hand of Yahweh shall be made known to His servants, but He shall be indignant toward His enemies. 15 For behold, Yahweh will come in fire and His chariots like the whirlwind, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire. 16 For Yahweh will execute judgment by fire and by His sword on all flesh, and those slain by Yahweh will be many. 17 "Those who sanctify and purify themselves to go to the gardens, following one in the center, who eat swine's flesh, detestable things, and mice, shall come to an end altogether," declares Yahweh. 18 "For I know their works and their thoughts; the time is coming to gather all nations and tongues. And they shall come and see My glory. 19 "And I will set a sign among them and will send survivors from them to the nations: Tarshish, Put, Lud, Meshech, Rosh, Tubal, and Javan, to the distant coastlands that have neither heard My fame nor seen My glory. And they will declare My glory among the nations. 20 "Then they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a grain offering to Yahweh, on horses, in chariots, in litters, on mules, and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem," says Yahweh, "just as the sons of Israel bring their grain offering in a clean vessel to the house of Yahweh. 21 "I will also take some of them for priests and for Levites," says Yahweh. 22 "For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I make will endure before Me," declares Yahweh, "So your offspring and your name will endure. 23 "And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before Me," says Yahweh. 24 "Then they shall go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against Me. For their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all mankind."
Psalm 57 For the choir director; set to Al-tashheth. A Mikhtam of David, when he fled from Saul, in the cave.
1 Be gracious to me, O God, be gracious to me, For my soul takes refuge in Thee; And in the shadow of Thy wings I will take refuge, Until destruction passes by. 2 I will cry to God Most High, To God who accomplishes all things for me. 3 He will send from heaven and save me; He reproaches him who tramples upon me. Selah. God will send forth His lovingkindness and His truth. 4 My soul is among lions; I must lie among those who breathe forth fire, Even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, And their tongue a sharp sword. 5 Be exalted above the heavens, O God; Let Thy glory be above all the earth. 6 They have prepared a net for my steps; My soul is bowed down; They dug a pit before me; They themselves have fallen into the midst of it. Selah. 7 My heart is steadfast, O God, my heart is steadfast; I will sing, yes, I will sing praises! 8 Awake, my glory; Awake, harp and lyre, I will awaken the dawn! 9 I will give thanks to Thee, O Lord, among the peoples; I will sing praises to Thee among the nations. 10 For Thy lovingkindness is great to the heavens, And Thy truth to the clouds. 11 Be exalted above the heavens, O God; Let Thy glory be above all the earth.
1 Now even the first covenant had regulations of divine worship and the earthly sanctuary. 2 For there was a tabernacle prepared, the outer one, in which were the lampstand and the table and the sacred bread; this is called the holy place. 3 And behind the second veil, there was a tabernacle which is called the Holy of Holies, 4 having a golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden jar holding the manna, and Aaron's rod which budded, and the tables of the covenant. 5 And above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat; but of these things we cannot now speak in detail. 6 Now when these things have been thus prepared, the priests are continually entering the outer tabernacle, performing the divine worship, 7 but into the second only the high priest enters, once a year, not without taking blood, which he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 8 The Holy Spirit is signifying this, that the way into the holy place has not yet been disclosed, while the outer tabernacle is still standing, 9 which is a symbol for the present time. Accordingly both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience, 10 since they relate only to food and drink and various washings, regulations for the body imposed until a time of reformation. 11 But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation; 12 and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? 15 And for this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, in order that since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. 16 For where a covenant is, there must of necessity be the death of the one who made it. 17 For a covenant is valid only when men are dead, for it is never in force while the one who made it lives. 18 Therefore even the first covenant was not inaugurated without blood. 19 For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the Law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which God commanded you." 21 And in the same way he sprinkled both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry with the blood. 22 And according to the Law, one may almost say, all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 23 Therefore it was necessary for the copies of the things in the heavens to be cleansed with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ did not enter a holy place made with hands, a mere copy of the true one, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 25 nor was it that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood not his own. 26 Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. 27 And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment, 28 so Christ also, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time for salvation without reference to sin, to those who eagerly await Him.
(Picture from Jerusalem Encyclopaedia Judaica)
(V. 25:1) Take a contribution / Build a Sanctuary
1 (V. 10) Ark
2 (V. 23) Table for Bread of Presence
3 (V. 31) Menorah
4 (V. 26:1) Ten Curtains
5 (V. 14) Tent Covering
6 (V. 31) Veil for Holy of Holies
7 (V. 36) Screen for Doorway
Table for the
twelve loaves of the Bread of the Presence
2-omer unleavened Loaf
Picture from Temple Institute
Wall Planks for
Picture from The Chumash - The Stone Edition
Sabbath Thirteen (June 8, 2002)
(You shall make a partition),
commonly called Exodus 26:31 – 27:19 (*Divided
for seven Torah readers)
1 Amen* 31 "And you shall make a veil of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen; it shall be made with cherubim, the work of a skillful workman. 32 "And you shall hang it on four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, their hooks also being of gold, on four sockets of silver. 33 "And you shall hang up the veil under the clasps, and shall bring in the ark of the testimony there within the veil; and the veil shall serve for you as a partition between the holy place and the holy of holies. 34 "And you shall put the mercy seat on the ark of the testimony in the holy of holies.
2 Amen* 35 "And you shall set the table outside the veil, and the lampstand opposite the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and you shall put the table on the north side. 36 "And you shall make a screen for the doorway of the tent of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen, the work of a weaver. 37 "And you shall make five pillars of acacia for the screen, and overlay them with gold, their hooks also being of gold; and you shall cast five sockets of bronze for them.
3 Amen* 27:1 "And you shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide; the altar shall be square, and its height shall be three cubits. 2 "And you shall make its horns on its four corners; its horns shall be of one piece with it, and you shall overlay it with bronze. 3 "And you shall make its pails for removing its ashes, and its shovels and its basins and its forks and its firepans; you shall make all its utensils of bronze.
4 Amen* 4 "And you shall make for it a grating of network of bronze, and on the net you shall make four bronze rings at its four corners. 5 "And you shall put it beneath, under the ledge of the altar, that the net may reach halfway up the altar. 6 "And you shall make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with bronze. 7 "And its poles shall be inserted into the rings, so that the poles shall be on the two sides of the altar when it is carried. 8 "You shall make it hollow with planks; as it was shown to you in the mountain, so they shall make it.
5 Amen* 9 "And you shall make the court of the tabernacle. On the south side there shall be hangings for the court of fine twisted linen one hundred cubits long for one side; 10 and its pillars shall be twenty, with their twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks of the pillars and their bands shall be of silver. 11 "And likewise for the north side in length there shall be hangings one hundred cubits long, and its twenty pillars with their twenty sockets of bronze; the hooks of the pillars and their bands shall be of silver.
6 Amen* 12 "And for the width of the court on the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits with their ten pillars and their ten sockets. 13 "And the width of the court on the east side shall be fifty cubits. 14 "The hangings for the one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits with their three pillars and their three sockets. 15 "And for the other side shall be hangings of fifteen cubits with their three pillars and their three sockets.
7 Amen* 16 "And for the gate of the court there shall be a screen of twenty cubits, of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen, the work of a weaver, with their four pillars and their four sockets. 17 "All the pillars around the court shall be furnished with silver bands with their hooks of silver and their sockets of bronze. 18 "The length of the court shall be one hundred cubits, and the width fifty throughout, and the height five cubits of fine twisted linen, and their sockets of bronze. 19 "All the utensils of the tabernacle used in all its service, and all its pegs, and all the pegs of the court, shall be of bronze.
1 Then I looked, and behold, in the expanse that was over the heads of the cherubim something like a sapphire stone, in appearance resembling a throne, appeared above them. 2 And He spoke to the man clothed in linen and said, "Enter between the whirling wheels under the cherubim, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and scatter them over the city." And he entered in my sight. 3 Now the cherubim were standing on the right side of the temple when the man entered, and the cloud filled the inner court. 4 Then the glory of Yahweh went up from the cherub to the threshold of the temple, and the temple was filled with the cloud, and the court was filled with the brightness of the glory of Yahweh. 5 Moreover, the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard as far as the outer court, like the voice of God Almighty when He speaks. 6 And it came about when He commanded the man clothed in linen, saying, "Take fire from between the whirling wheels, from between the cherubim," he entered and stood beside a wheel. 7 Then the cherub stretched out his hand from between the cherubim to the fire which was between the cherubim, took some and put it into the hands of the one clothed in linen, who took it and went out. 8 And the cherubim appeared to have the form of a man's hand under their wings. 9 Then I looked, and behold, four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside each cherub; and the appearance of the wheels was like the gleam of a Tarshish stone. 10 And as for their appearance, all four of them had the same likeness, as if one wheel were within another wheel. 11 When they moved, they went in any of their four directions without turning as they went; but they followed in the direction which they faced, without turning as they went. 12 And their whole body, their backs, their hands, their wings, and the wheels were full of eyes all around, the wheels belonging to all four of them. 13 The wheels were called in my hearing, the whirling wheels. 14 And each one had four faces. The first face was the face of a cherub, the second face was the face of a man, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle. 15 Then the cherubim rose up. They are the living beings that I saw by the river Chebar. 16 Now when the cherubim moved, the wheels would go beside them; also when the cherubim lifted up their wings to rise from the ground, the wheels would not turn from beside them. 17 When the cherubim stood still, the wheels would stand still; and when they rose up, the wheels would rise with them; for the spirit of the living beings was in them. 18 Then the glory of Yahweh departed from the threshold of the temple and stood over the cherubim. 19 When the cherubim departed, they lifted their wings and rose up from the earth in my sight with the wheels beside them; and they stood still at the entrance of the east gate of Yahweh's house. And the glory of the God of Israel hovered over them.
Psalm 58 For the choir director; set to Al-tashheth. A Mikhtam of David.
1 Do you indeed speak righteousness, O gods? Do you judge uprightly, O sons of men? 2 No, in heart you work unrighteousness; on earth you weigh out the violence of your hands. 3 The wicked are estranged from the womb; these who speak lies go astray from birth. 4 They have venom like the venom of a serpent; like a deaf cobra that stops up its ear, 5 so that it does not hear the voice of charmers, or a skillful caster of spells. 6 O God, shatter their teeth in their mouth; break out the fangs of the young lions, O Yahweh. 7 Let them flow away like water that runs off; when he aims his arrows, let them be as headless shafts. 8 Let them be as a snail which melts away as it goes along, like the miscarriages of a woman which never see the sun. 9 Before your pots can feel the fire of thorns, He will sweep them away with a whirlwind, the green and the burning alike. 10 The righteous will rejoice when he sees the vengeance; He will wash his feet in the blood of the wicked. 11 And men will say, "Surely there is a reward for the righteous; surely there is a God who judges on earth!"
1 Then Yeshua spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, 2 saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees have seated themselves in the chair of Moses; 3 therefore all that they tell you, do and observe, but do not do according to their deeds; for they say things, and do not do them. 4 "And they tie up heavy loads, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves are unwilling to move them with so much as a finger.
5 "But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries, and lengthen the tassels of their garments. 6 "And they love the place of honor at banquets, and the chief seats in the synagogues, 7 and respectful greetings in the market places, and being called by men, Rabbi. 8 "But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. 9 "And do not call anyone on earth your father; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven. 10 "And do not be called leaders (masters); for One is your Leader, that is, Christ. 11 "But the greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 "And whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted.
13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from men; for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in. 14 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows' houses, even while for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you shall receive greater condemnation. 15 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you travel about on sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves. 16 "Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, that is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 17 "You fools and blind men; which is more important, the gold, or the temple that sanctified the gold? 18 "And, 'Whoever swears by the altar, that is nothing, but whoever swears by the offering upon it, he is obligated.' 19 "You blind men, which is more important, the offering or the altar that sanctifies the offering? 20 "Therefore he who swears by the altar, swears both by the altar and by everything on it. 21 "And he who swears by the temple, swears both by the temple and by Him who dwells within it. 22 "And he who swears by heaven, swears both by the throne of God and by Him who sits upon it. 23 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier provisions of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others. 24 "You blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel! 25 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside they are full of robbery and self-indulgence. 26 "You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of it may become clean also. 27 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which on the outside appear beautiful, but inside they are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness. 28 "Even so you too outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
Ps 58:11 "Surely there is a reward for the righteous; surely there is a God who judges on earth!"
We have moedim / appointments with God. There are appointed times: Sabbaths and Holy Days. There are appointed places: the Tabernacle (in time past), the Temple (when standing), and synagogue.
These are misuses of the Tabernacle, and its successor the Temple, and the offices thereof.
Woe to you, blind guides, who say,
'Whoever swears by the temple, that is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.'
You fools and blind men; which is more important, the gold, or the temple that sanctified the gold?
And, 'Whoever swears by the altar, that is nothing, but whoever swears by the offering upon it, he is obligated.' You blind men, which is more important, the offering or the altar that sanctifies the offering?
Therefore he who swears by the altar, swears both by the altar and by everything on it. And he who swears by the temple, swears both by the Temple and by Him who dwells within it. And he who swears by heaven, swears both by the throne of God and by Him who sits upon it.
The Tabernacle and Temple were the places where God met with man. They were holy – dedicated to God for worship only. To falsely swear, “as the Temple stands …”, is to swear by God who dwelt there, since that was its sole significance; otherwise, if no significance is acknowledged, why not just swear, “as the out house stands …”? And what is the significance of the gold of the Temple, beyond any other gold, except that it is part of the Temple? So, we must consider the significance of the terms we use.
These “blind guides” would normally carry out logic from Torah passages to great lengths, but for themselves they forsook logic and used excuses. So what’s new? Do not we do the same? We need to ask God to show us what is in our hearts, and repent.
They do all their deeds to be noticed by men;
(1) for they broaden their phylacteries, and lengthen the tassels of their garments.
(2) And they love the place of honor at banquets, and the chief seats in the synagogues,
(3) and respectful greetings in the market places,
(4) and being called by men, Rabbi.
Do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers.
(Rabbim – a teacher of
talmidim / disciples.)
The Talmudic Rabbi was an interpreter and expounder of Torah and Talmud, and had an occupation to derive his livelihood. The title “Rabbi” was originally honorary, the principle being that Torah must be taught free of charge. The fourteenth century shows the first evidence of salaried Rabbis, when the justification was to offset one’s loss of time (Jerusalem Encyclopaedia Judaica vol 13 pg 1445-6). Today’s offices of (Jewish) Rabbi and (Christian) Pastor are generally more contrary to Biblical ethics than even those offices to which Yeshua referred.
In Orthodox Jewish circles, the title “Rabbi” is now given to those who have certain education and training. However, in “Messianic” circles, it is common for a self-made leader, with little knowledge of Hebrew or Torah, to take to himself the title. This practice is making a laughingstock of “Messianics” in general before the Jewish community that they claim to be seeking to reach. (Often assumed names are taken as well as a title, such as “Rabbi Moshe …ski”, and “… Hilel ben David”.)
Do not call anyone on earth “Father”; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven.
This is not the term of familiarity, “abba” (daddy), but the formal term “Av” (Father), that is used for spiritual progenitors, such as Abraham, but also for contemporary leaders who establish doctrine.
Do not be called masters / spiritual leaders; for One is your Leader, that is, Christ.
pl. of Rav – great.)
Moses was a forerunner of Messiah (“a prophet like me”), and the Bible indicates no such earthly office today. The ancient synagogue offices have no hierarchy, but a division of responsibilities among elected officers. (This term may have been used for members of the Great Assembly – the Sanhedrin. The warning could then apply to those who “seat themselves in Moses’ seat”.)
“But the greatest among you shall be your servant. And whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted.”
And today we have “Rev.”
– Reverend / Awesome; Webster: worthy of respect and awe and affection.)
The Bible says, “Holy and Reverend is His Name” (Psalm 111:9).
Now, many make excuses for using these titles. But the message here is not against only certain high titles: the base admonition of Yeshua is, we are “all brothers”, and should not seek to be “noticed by men” by our distinguishing garments or love distinguishing titles; rather we are to humble ourselves.
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